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2018年04月14日GRE考试真题回忆

2018-12-07 18:05 三立在线 admin

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摘要:作文机经 Issue Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these consideration

 作文机经

  Issue

  "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."

  Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

  题目翻译

  现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的,因为道德行为是无法用法律约束的。

  Outline

  I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on certain personal freedoms。However,when it comes to the conduct of business,I think that moral behavior not only can but must be legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal

  problems。

  1。 Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our personal lives—to control what we do with and to ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society。

  2。 Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the greater good of society, because on balance their costs far outweigh their benefits。

  3. In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of businesses can and must be controlled through legislation.

  Argument

  A recent study reported that pet owners have longer,healthier lives on average than do people who own no pets。Specifically,dog owners tend to have a lower incidence of heart disease。In light of these findings,Sherwood Hospital should form a partnership with Sherwood Animal Shelter to institute an adopt-a-dog program。The program would encourage dog ownership for patients recovering from heart disease, which should reduce these patients' chance of experiencing continuing heart problems and also reduce their need for ongoing treatment。As a further benefit,the publicity about the program would encourage more people to

  adopt pets from the shelter. And that will reduce the incidence of heart disease in the general population.

  Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

  题目翻译

  最近一项研究报告发现,平均来说,养宠物的人比不养宠物的更长寿、更健康。特别是养狗的人,他们的心脏病发病率往往较低。鉴于这些发现,Sherwood医陊应该与Sherwood劢物收容所建立合作关系以开展“领养一叧狗”的计划。该计划将会鼓励处于心脏病康复期的患者养狗,这将陈低这些病人持续性心脏发病的可能,并减小他们持续的治疗需求。另外一个好处是,对于该计划的宣传将会鼓励更多的人从收容所中领养宠物。而且,这将减少全体居民患心脏病的风险。

  写一篇文章,检查论证过程中陈述和/或未陈述的假设。一定要解释论证过程是如何依赖这些假设建立的,如果这些假设被证明是不合理的,对于论证过程来说有哪些潜在影响。

  题目分析

  A。 前提:a recent study reported that pet owners have longer,healthier lives on average than do people who own no pets。Specifically,dog owners tend to have a lower incidence of heart disease

  最近一项研究报告发现,平均来说,养宠物的人比不养宠物的更长寿、更健康。特别是养狗的人,他们的心脏病发病率往往较低

  B。 结论:in light of these findings, Sherwood Hospital should form a partnership with Sherwood Animal Shelter to institute an adopt-a-dog program

  Sherwood 医陊应该与Sherwood动物收容所建立合作关系以开展“领养一叧狗”的计划

  C. 论据:

  1。 The program would encourage dog ownership for patients recovering from heart disease,which should reduce these patients' chance of experiencing continuing heart problems and also reduce their need for ongoing treatment

  该计划将会鼓励处于心脏病康复期的患者养狗,这将陈低这些病人持续性心脏发病的可能,并减小他们持续的治疗需求

  2. The publicity about the program would encourage more people to adopt pets from the shelter

  另外一个好处是,对于该计划的宣传将会鼓励更多的人从收容所中领养宠物

  3. That will reduce the incidence of heart disease in the general population

  这将减少全体居民患心脏病的风险

  提纲(可攻击点)

  1、“心脏病康复期的患者”和调查中所说的“养狗的人”是否是同一类人群?如果不是,他们有什么区别?

  2、减少心脏病康复期患者的治疗次数以及费用是否能降低人们患心脏病的风险?治疗费用和次数的减少是否和题目的论证过程(因为养狗可以降低心脏病的发病率,所以要建立“领养一叧狗”的计划)有关?

  3、领养其他宠物是否会陈低人们得心脏病的风险?

  4、除了健康或减少患病风险外,人们决定领养宠物会考虑到哪些其他因素?

填空等价机经

  1. The children's _____ natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents.

  A. mercurial

  B。 blithe

  C。 phlegmatic

  D. apathetic

  E. cunning

  正确答案:A

  题目解析:孩子们多变的本性不他们父母镇定的性格形成鲜明的对比。本题中sharp contrast表示前后形容词反义。比较起来,A与even-tempered是更为直接的反义词。

  因此选 A。

  even-tempered :性情平和,沉稳;mercurial:指人反复无常; blithe:愉快欢乐的; phlegmatic:冷静冷漠迟钝的; apathetic:无感情的冷漠的;cunning:狡猾可爱巧妙的

  2。 With the rate of technological (i) _____accelerating—many people now consider a personal computer (ii) _____after three years—the question of how to properly dispose of old equipment is no small matter。

  Blank (i) Blank (ii)

  A。 affordability D。 outdated

  B. complexity E. familiar

  C. obsolescence F. inestimable

  正确答案:C D

  题目解析:这题的意思是当科技过时加速时候,现在很多人都觉得电脑用三年就过时了----对于如何处置旧的装置已经不是个小问题了。破折号是进一步解释前面的意思。题目意思看懂了后就能很快选出 2 个相近的意思的选项,即是 CD.

  3. Bureaucrats tend to (i) _____ .So it is surprising that the European Commission is proposing to hand back some of its antitrust powers to national governments. Such a willingness to (ii) _____ power is quite (iii) _____ .Perhaps the commission, so often a byword for meddling, bungling, and even corruption, is starting to put its house in order following the forced resignation of the previous lot of commissioners last year.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)

  A. value complex procedures D. devolve G. troubling

  B。 guard their authority jealously E。 misuse H。 encouraging

  C. shirk many of their responsibilities F. appropriate I. predictable

  正确答案:B D H

  题目解析:官僚都是喜欢抓牢权利的。因此欧盟委员会想要把部分权利归还政府的做法令人吃惊。如此移交权利的意愿相当鼓舞人心。首先第一空从tend to和后面的surprising,可以看出填入的内容应该是和proposing to hand back some of its antitrust powers to national governments相反的,所以选 B。第二空可以根据such来判断,应该填入与hand back power 意思相同相近的内容,因此选 D。第三空可根据后面句子的意思应该填入一个表示正面积极意思的词汇,因此选 H。

  4. Despite her relaxed and flexible style,Ms.de la Fressange is _____ businesswoman who knows how to market her brand:herself.

  A。 a ruthless

  B。 a creative

  C. a canny

  D. an industrious

  E。 a shrewd

  F. an effective

  正确答案:C E

  题目解析:尽管de la Fressange女士有着懒散的作风,但她依旧是一个懂得如何包装自己的“精明”商务女性。本题重点在于Despite提供的转折,前面提到了慵懒的作风,后边就应该强调其“精明能干”。选取此类词汇,即canny和shrewd ruthless残忍的;无情的;canny谨慎的;industrious 勤奋的;shrewd 机灵的;effective 有效的

  5。 A recent study suggests that vitamin E supplements, despite widespread

  belief in their _____, are no better than sugar pills for delaying the onset of the

  degenerative disease。

  A。 potential

  B. misuse

  C。 popularity

  D。 efficacy

  E. prevalence

  F。 usefulness

  正确答案:D F

  题目解析:一个近期的研究发现维生素E,排除其广为流传的有效性看法,并不比糖片在延缓衰老性疾病上更有效。本题重点在despite一词上,后面说的是no better,那么空格中就应该填入意思相反的词,也就是有用有效意思的词汇,符合这一要求的是 DF 组合。

  6。 Parkin's characterization of the movement as Neo-Scholastic is too _____ to be accepted without further investigation。

  A. cursory

  B. detailed

  C. perfunctory

  D. biased

  E。 self-evident

  F。 complete

  正确答案:A C

  题目解析:too。。to 的意思是太。。。而不能够。。,后面是to be accepted without further investigation,可知意思是“没有更多的调查而不能够被接受”,所以前面要填负面词汇。cursory/perfunctory 是草率的意思。正解。注意 self-evident 是不证自明的。

  数学机经

  1. In a probability experiment, G and H are independent events.The probability that G will occur is r,and the probability that H will occur is s, where both r and s are greater than 0.

  Quantity A:the probability that either G will occur or H will occur, but not both

  Quantity B:r+s-r*s

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B。 Quantity B is greater。

  C。 The two quantities are equal。

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  正确答案:B

  题目解析:G事件与H事件互相独立,G事件概率为r, H事件概率为s,求两事件其中之一发生的概率。

  只发生 G 事件:r*(1-s)

  只发生 H 事件:s*(1-r)

  相加可得 r+s-2*r*s,小于 Quantity B,因此选 B。

  2。 The area of circle W is 16*π and the area of circle Z is 4*π。 What is the ratio of the circumference of W to the circumference of Z?

  A。 2 to 1

  B. 4 to 1

  C. 8 to 1

  D。 16 to 1

  E。 32 to 1

  正确答案:A

  题目解析:根据圆形面积公式,可知两圆的半径比例为 2:1,然后根据周长公式计算,其州长比例也为 2:1。所以选 A。

  3。 The interior dimensions of a rectangular tank are as follows: length 110 centimeters, width 90 centimeters, and height 270 centimeters。 The tank rests on level ground。 Based on the assumption that the volume of water increases by 10 percent when it freezes, which of the following is closest to the maximum height,in centimeters,to which the tank can be filled with water so that when the water freezes, the ice would not rise above the top of the tank?

  A. 230

  B. 235

  C. 240

  D。 245

  E. 250

  正确答案:D

  题目解析:已知水箱长宽高数据,和水结冰时会上升 10%高度的推论,问水箱里可以装多少水,其结冰时也不会超过水箱高度。设为x,列出 1.1x=270,x 约等于245,所以选 D。

  4. In a certain sequence of numbers, each term after the first term is found by multiplying the preceding term by 2 and then subtracting 3 from the product. If the 4th term in the sequence is 19, which of the following numbers are in the sequence? Indicate all such numbers.

  A. 5

  B. 8

  C. 11

  D. 16

  E. 35

  正确答案:A C E

  题目解析:第一项设为 x,根据题目条件可知第二项 2x-3,第三项 2(2x-3)-3=4x-9,第四项依次类推为 8x-21。接下来根据第四项=40 算出 x=5,代入前五项,分别算出 5,7,11,40,35。其中符合条件的选项为 ACE。

  5. 

  The quadrants of the xy-plane are shown in the figure above.In the xy-plane,line m (not shown) has a positive slope and a positive x-intercept.Line m intersects which of the quadrants?Indicate all such quadrants

  A。 Quadrant I

  B. Quadrant II

  C. Quadrant III

  D. Quadrant IV

  正确答案:A C D

  题目解析:本题关键在于看懂抽象描述。问直线 m 经过哪几个象限。条件positive slope可知 m 大致上是从左下往右上的斜线,那么第二和第四象限必然有一个不经过或者两个都不经过,条件 positive x-intercept 表明 m 和 x 轴的正数侧也就是右侧相交,那么 m 经过象限就是 1,3,4,所以选 ACD

 

  阅读逻辑机经

  短篇阅读

  James W。 Coleman's book on John Edgar Wideman's literary career addresses the needs of a general,if well-read,public rather than the esoteric vanities of scholarly specialists, whom he neither ignores nor flatters。To assume the former audience was familiar with every work Wideman ever penned would have been pretentious。 Instead,Cole- man furnishes more than ample descriptive criticism and background information, avoiding the cryptic allusiveness that is favored by some academic critics but that discourages the undergraduate audience he likely envisioned。Unfortunately,this accent on bringing serious Wideman criticism to a broader audience often frustrates the reader who wishes that announced themes,techniques,and stylistic devices would not whisk by as quickly as world capitals on a seven-day package tour of the globe。

  The reference to“a seven-day package tour of the globe”(line 10)is most likely meant to suggest a treatment that is

  A. inclusive

  B. cursory

  C。 focused

  D. broad based

  E。 substantial

  正确答案:B

  题目解析:C 为了让大众都能明白 W 的书,所以提供了丰富的信息。然而,这种做法也招来了读者们质疑,他们希望C的做法不会是走马观花式的。因此,答案要体现:1。 读者的担心(负面的);2。走马观花这一特点(即是快,或者是丌绅致)。对比选项发现只有B满足两个条件,选B

  文章翻译:Coleman 这个人写了一本关于John Edgar文学成就的书,这本书如果被好好的品读们就会发现是一本接地气的适合大众阅读的书,而不是用来给评论家批判的书。因此去质疑 Coleman 到底有没有读完所以关于John 的作品然后再下笔写这本书的做法其实显得有一些无聊自大自作多情。相反,他的书运用了了大量的素材,抛弃了那些与家学者喜欢的模糊高深的判词(同时这些高深学术文字也是青年读者所不喜的。)不幸的是,这种戏说wideman的风格措辞虽然可以吸纳很多粉丝来阅读,但是也让那些希望严谨态度(包括从:理论方面,技术方面,风格方面,不需要很粗略走马观花的去看)绅绅解读 wideman 的人失望了。

  长篇阅读

  Most recent work on the history of leisure in Europe has been based on the central hypothesis of a fundamental discontinuity between preindustrial and industrial societies.According to this view,the modern idea of leisure did not exist in medieval and early modern Europe:the modern distinction between the categories of work and leisure was a product of industrial capitalism. Preindustrial societies had festivals (together with informal and irregular breaks from work),while industrial societies have leisure in the form of weekends and vacations.The emergence of leisure is there-fore part of the process of modernization.If this theory is correct,there is what Michel Foucault called a conceptual rupture between the two periods, and so the very idea of a history of leisure before the Industrial Revolution is an anachronism.

  To reject the idea that leisure has had a continuous history from the Middle Ages to the present is not to deny that late medieval and early modern Europeans engaged in many pursuits that are now commonly considered leisure or sporting activities—

  jousting,hunting,tennis,card playing,travel,and so on—or that Europe in this period was dominated by a privileged class that engaged in these pursuits.What is involved in the discontinuity hypothesis is the recognition that the people of the Middle Ages and early modern Europe did not regard as belonging to a common category activities (hunting and gambling, for example) that are usually classified together today under the heading of leisure. Consider fencing:today it may be considered a“sport,”but for the gentleman of the Renaissance it was an art or science.Conversely,activities that today may be considered serious,notably warfare,were often described as pastimes.

  Serious pitfalls therefore confront historians of leisure who assume continuity and who work with the modern concepts of leisure and sport,projecting them back onto the past without asking about the meanings contemporaries gave to their activities.

  However,the discontinuity hypothesis can pose problems of its own。Historians holding this view attempt to avoid anachronism by means of a simple dichotomy,cutting European history into two eras,preindustrial and industrial,setting up the binary opposition between a“festival culture”and a“leisure culture。" The dichotomy remains of use insofar as it reminds us that the rise of industrial capitalism was not purely a phenomenon of economic history,but had social and cultural preconditions and consequences。The dichotomy, however,leads to distortions when it reduces a great variety of medieval and early modern European ideas, assumptions, and practices to the simple formula implied by the phrase“festival culture。”

  1。 The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. refute the idea that the history of leisure is discontinuous

  B。 show why one of two approaches is more useful in studying the history of leisure

  C. suggest the need for a new, more inclusive concept to replace the concept of leisure

  D. trace the development of a theory about the history of leisure

  E。 point out the basis for, and the limits of, an approach to the history of leisure

  正确答案:E

  题目解析:第一段主要讲了recent work on the history of leisure 的 basis 即 hypothesis of discontinuity, 然后讲了这个hypothesis 的主要内容。之后第二第三段,都是对这个hypothesis 的补充说明,第二段说它并不代表否认medieval和Early modern的欧洲有那些今天认为是leisure的追求,第三段说那些不用这个 hypothesis的历史学家都有serious pitfalls 即过去人们对 leisure 和 sports 的概念和现在完全不同。第三段开头即陈述这个hypothesis有Problem,然后说历史学家使用dichotomy 这个“approach”。然后具体讲 dichotomy 这个方法和它的problem 也就是limit,即后文所说的 distortion。因此全文是围绕 basis 和 limits 展开的,所以选 E。

  2. The author of the passage asserts that the“dichotomy”(last paragraph)can lead to which of the following?

  A。 Reliance on only one of several equally valid theoretical approaches

  B. The imposition of modern conceptions and meanings on past societies

  C。 Failure to take into account the complexity of certain features of European culture

  D. Failure to utilize new conceptual categories in the study of the history of leisure

  E. Failure to take account of the distinction between preindustrial and industrial

  societies

  正确答案:C

  题目解析:本题是细节题The dichotomy, however,leads to distortions when it reduces a great variety of medieval and early modern European ideas,assumptions,and practices to the simple formula implied by the phrase“festival culture.”当他把中世纪和早期现代欧洲的理念,假设和实践都缩减到一个简单的公式——“节日文化”的时候,二分法导致了一种扭曲。解题关键是reduces a great variety of和simple。对应Failure to take into account the complexity ,所以选 C。

  3。 Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage as a whole?

  A。 Two hypotheses are discussed, and evidence in support of one is presented。

  B. A hypothesis is presented and discussed, and a limitation to the hypothesis is identified.

  C。 A hypothesis is proposed, its supposed advantages are shown to be real, and its supposed disadvantages are shown to be illusory。

  D。 A problem is identified, two hypotheses are advanced to resolve it,and both are rejected。

  E. A problem is identified, two resolutions are proposed,and a solution combining elements of both is recommended.

  正确答案:B

  题目解析:本题需要在了解全文框架的基础上迚行解答。文章第一段提出一个hypothesis,第二第三段围绕展开,最后点出这个 hypothesis 的问题和丌足。所以选 B。

  逻辑阅读

  Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view that Antarctica was first sighted around 1820,but some sixteenth-century European maps show a body that resembles the polar landmass,even though explorers of the period never saw it。Some scholars,therefore,argue that the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients, whose maps are known to have served as models for the European cartographers。

  Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to the inference drawn by the scholars?

  A. The question of who first sighted Antarctica in modern times is still much debated,and no one has been able to present conclusive evidence.

  B。 Between3,000and9,000years ago,the world was warmer than it is now,and the polar landmass was presumably smaller。

  C. There are only a few sixteenth-century global maps that show a continental landmass at the South Pole.

  D. Most attributions of surprising accomplishments to ancient civilizations or even extraterrestrials are eventually discredited or rejected as preposterous.

  E. Ancient philosophers believed that there had to be a large landmass at the South Pole to balance the northern continents and make the world symmetrical.

  正确答案:E

  题目解析:文章逻辑链:论据:1.16世纪欧洲地图有南极大陆标识。2.古人地图被用来作为欧洲制图师的参考模型。推出结论:部分学者认为南极洲是古人发现并做出地图的。问削弱。

  A. 没有人能给出明确证据。两不相帮,无关。

  B. 3000 年前到 9000 年前之间,地球比现在更温暖,南极大陆更小。无关选项。

  C。 只有一部分16世纪世界地图标识了南极大陆。即使叧有一部分也能证明逻辑链存在。无法削弱。

  D。 大部分被认为是古代文明甚至外星人创造的伟业最终都被证明是荒谬可笑的。即使大部分也不是全部,因此无法削弱逻辑链。

  E. 古人认为南极有大陆只是出于世界对称性的猜测,认为有北极所以会有南极。也就是说古人认为有南极大陆并不是实际发现的,叧是一种猜测。成功削弱逻辑链。正确。

 

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